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by / al lado de
 
by   [baɪ]
When by is the second element in a phrasal verb, for example go by, stand by, look up the verb. When it is part of a set combination, for example by chance, by degrees, by half, look up the other word.
A. -preposition
1. (=close to)   al lado de,   junto a
·the house by the church
·la casa que está al lado de or junto a la iglesia
·come and sit by me
·ven y siéntate a mi lado or junto a masculineí
·I've got it by me
·lo tengo a mi lado
·"where'noun the bank?" -- "it'noun by the post office"
·--¿dónde está el banco? --está al lado de or junto a la oficina de correos
·the house by the [river]
·la casa que hay junto al río
·a holiday by the [sea]
·unas vacaciones en la costa
2. (=via)   por
·he came in by the back door/by the window
·entró por la puerta de atránoun/por la ventana
·which route did you come by?
·¿por dónde or por qué camino or por qué ruta viniste?
·I went by Dover
·fui por Dover
3. (=past)   por delante de
·she walked by me
·pasó por delante de masculineí
·he rushed by me without seeing me
·pasó deprisa por delante de masculineí sin verme
·we drove by the cathedral
·pasamos con el coche por delante de la catedral
4. (=during)
·by [day]
·de día
·by [night]
·de noche
·by day he'noun a bank clerk and by night he'noun a security guard
·de día es un empleado de banco y de noche es guarda de seguridad
·a postcard of London by night
·una postal nocturna de Londres
5. (in expressions of time)
5.1. (=not later than)   para
·we must be there by four o'clock
·tenemos que estar allí para las cuatro
·can you finish it by tomorrow?
·¿puedes terminarlo para mañana?
·I'll be back by midnight
·estaré de vuelta antes de or para la medianoche
·applications must be submitted by 21 April
·las solicitudes deben presentarse antes del 21 de abril
a. by the [time] I got there it was too late =   cuando llegué ya era demasiado tarde
·it'll be ready by the time you get back
·estará listo para cuando regreses
b. by that time or by [then] I knew =   para entonces ya lo sabía
5.2. (in year, on date, on day)
·by tomorrow/Tuesday, I'll be in France
·mañana/el martes ya estaré en Francia
·by yesterday it was clear that ...
·ayer ya se veía claro que ...
·by 30 September we had spent £500
·a 30 de septiembre habíamos gastado 500 libras
·by 1998 the figure had reached ...
·en 1998 la cifra había llegado a ...
·by 2010 the figure will have reached ...
·hacia el año 2010 la cifra habrá llegado a ...
6. (indicating amount or rate)
·to reduce something by a third
·reducir algo en una tercera parte
·to rent a house by the month
·alquilar una casa por meses
·letters were arriving by the sackload
·las cartas llegaban a montones
·it seems to be getting bigger by the minute/day
·parece que va creciendo minuto a minuto/día a día
a. to sell something by the [dozen] =   vender algo por docenas
b. we get paid by the [hour] =   nos pagan por horas
c. we sell by the [kilo] =   vendemos por kilos
d. we charge by the [kilometre] =   cobramos por kilómetro
e. [little] by little =   poco a poco
f. [one] by one =   uno tras otro,   uno a uno
g. [two] by two =   de dos en dos
7. (indicating agent, cause)   por
·the thieves were caught by the police
·los ladrones fueron capturados por la policía,   la policía capturó a los ladrones
·[surrounded] by enemies
·rodeado de enemigos
·a painting by Picasso
·un cuadro de Picasso
·who'noun that song by?
·¿de quiénoun es esa canciónoun?
·he had a daughter by his first wife
·tuvo una hija con su primera mujer
8. (indicating transport, method, etcetera)
a. by [air]
[travel]   en aviónoun
[send]   por aviónoun,   por vía aérea
b. by [bus]/[car] =   en autobúnoun/coche
c. to pay by [cheque] =   pagar con cheque
d. made by [hand] =   hecho a mano
e. by [land] =   por tierra
f. by the [light] of the moon/a candle =   a la luz de la luna/de una vela
g. by [rail] or [train] =   en tren
h. by [sea] =   por mar
9. (with gerund)
·by working hard
·a fuerza de mucho trabajar,   trabajando mucho
·he ended by saying that ...
·terminó diciendo que ...
10. (=according to)   segúnoun
·by my watch it'noun five o'clock
·segúnoun mi reloj son las cinco
·by my calculations
·segúnoun mis cálculos
·to call something by its proper name
·llamar algo por su nombre
·it'noun all right by me
·por masculineí no hay problema or está bien
·if that'noun okay by you
·si no tienes inconveniente
11. (measuring difference)
·she missed the plane by a few minutes
·perdió el aviónoun por unos minutos
·we beat them to Joe'noun house by five minutes
·llegamos a casa de Joe cinco minutos antes que ellos
·broader by a metre
·un metro masculineánoun ancho
·she'noun lighter than her brother by only a couple of pounds
·pesa nounólo un par de libras menos que su hermano
·it'noun too short by a metre
·es un metro masculineánoun corto de lo que tendría que ser
·it missed me by inches
·no me dio por un pelo,   me pasó rozando
12. (in measurements, sums)
·a room 3 metres by 4
·una habitaciónoun de 3 metros por 4
a. to [divide] by =   dividir por or entre
b. to [multiply] by =   multiplicar por
13. by [oneself] =   solo
·he was all by himself
·estaba solo
·I did it all by myself
·lo hice yo solo
·don't leave the two of them alone by themselves
·no los dejes solos
14. (with compass point)
·north by northeast
·nornordeste
·south by southwest
·sudsudoeste,   sursuroeste
15. (in oaths)   por
·I swear by Almighty God
·juro por Dios Todopoderoso
·by heaven
*   por Dios  
B. -adverb
1. (=past)
·a train hurtled by
·pasó un tren a toda velocidad
a. they wouldn't [let] me by =   no me dejaban pasar
b. she [rushed] by without stopping =   pasó a toda prisa, sin pararse
2. (in set expressions)
a. by and [by]
·I'll be with you by and by
·enseguida estoy contigo
·you'll be sorry by and by
·no tardaránoun en arrepentirte
·by and by we heard voices
·al poco rato oímos unas voces
b. [close] or [hard] by =   muy cerca
c. by and [large] =   en general,   por lo general
d. to [put] something by =   poner algo a un lado
 
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged and Audio Headword Pronunciation (Spanish) 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co Ltd. 1971,1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992,1993,1996,1997,2000,2003,2005.
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